• Grossel, Stanley, Detonation & Deflagration Flame Arresters 2002 (see picture of Textbook cover above).

  • Hesselbring. L.C., "Case study: Flame arresters and exploding gasoline containers", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 130 (2006) 64-68.

  • CPSC Staff Briefing Package on Firepots and Gel Fuel, December 7, 2011.

  • “Evaluation of Firepots and Gel Fuels,” by Nathan D. Marsh, Fire Research Division Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, March 2013.

  • NFPA- Flammable & Combustible Code Committee. Minutes June 6, 2013.

  • Minister, Andrew, Unsafe Science, NFPA Journal Sept/Oct 2015.

  • CSB "Key Lessons for Preventing Incidents from Flammable Chemicals in Educational Demonstrations, October 30, 2015.

  • Kulinowski, Karen, PhD, Statement From Board Member, November 3, 2015.

  • F. Neubrech, L. Keifer, VJ Schmidt, AK Bigdelli, JF Hernekamp, T. Kremer, U. Kneser, CA Radu "Domestic Bioethanol-Fireplaces-A New Source of Severe Burn Accidents" October 27, 2015. Burns Feb, 2016.

  • NFPA 921, "Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations", is a National Fire Code published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1992 to present.

  • OSHA Interpretation, January 29, 2004.

  • Kill The Flashover Research Project by Joe Starnes 2015-

  • Modern Fire Behavior- &

  • Flow Path Management - Adam St. John- ATF Fire Research & Gladys Falkenham- Firefighter's Wife.


  • Allonas, J. 1878 US Patent No. 205716, Spark-Arrester (July 9, 1878).

  • Rudolph J. Anschicks, Filling and Venting Device, U.S. Patent 1,814,656, Assignor to Protectoseal Company of America, July 14, 1931.

Flame arrestors, the technical science term is DDA's, are deflagration and detonation arrestors. They have been used effectively for over 200 years.

  • The Science is proven: Barrier protection prevents burns

  • The facts are known: DDA'S are required in many industrial and commercial applications

  • The risk is real: There are over a hundred examples of severe burn injuries that made the news, there are many more that do not make the news, do not specialized burn care, or are not reported

  • The time is now: We need to raise awareness and stop these tragic occurrences

  • We can work together: To offer consumers a safer choice of bottles and cans with flame arresters or flame mitigating devices, in open neck containers